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Blanching is the immersing of products into freshly boiling water. Sometimes this is carried out pre-freezing to prevent off-colours developing during frozen storage. Peas and runner beans are blanched to retain their lovely green colour when frozen. Some products are blanched to help the removal of their skins such as tomatoes or peaches.
A bain-marie is a water bath that surrounds another container so that heat is gently passed through. It is sometimes called a double boiler. It can be used to keep food hot during service in a canteen. The principle is used when melting chocolate where a container is placed over a pan of boiling water.
Providing food and beverage service to people in a particular location. A caterer is a business or person who arranges the preparation, delivery and presentation of food for clients.
An appetizer with a bread, toast or biscuit base topped with savoury toppings and decoratively served.
A thin sauce made from sieved or blended vegetable or fruit. Often used to dress a plate or to enhance a dish.
Cuisines refer to the authentic style or method of cooking characteristic of a particular country, region, or establishment. It could be local or national e.g. Norwegian cuisine is based on seafood.
Making food products appear more exciting and enticing by presenting them in styled containers or with props that are appropriate. Food styling is usually carried out for food photography but the principles apply to serving food in a stylish way
Fast food is ordered from a visual display. The food or drink is prepared on demand and often served in take-away wrapping.
Geuridon service is moveable usually as a trolley, which enables personal service and cooking of food for customers e.g. flambé of a dish,
Hospitality is the business of providing people with accommodation meals and drinks away from their home.
A way of helping to give flavours to an ingredient such as milk. Rose leaves or black peppercorns, bay leaves or vanilla pods can be allowed to stand in milk for a period of time to infuse the milk with their flavours. They are then removed and are not part of the final dish. Fruit infusions are now a popular tea substitute – the flavoured water is infused using a ‘bag’ which is then removed.
Flour and fat cooked together and used to thicken sauces. Usually equal quantities of flour and fat by weight. A roux can be white, as in bechamel sauce, or browned for speciality sauces.
Ragoût is a slow cooked, seasoned dish of small pieces of meat cooked with vegetables. Or simply a mixture of vegetables cooked together and seasoned well.
Ragù is a classic Italian sauce used to serve with pasta. Bolognese is a type of ragù.
Seasoning is an art that needs to be practised. It marks a great chef from an ordinary cook. Initially salt and pepper were ‘the seasonings’ that every cook used. Seasoning brings out the natural flavour of the food products. It is not the dominant flavour. Now we know about global cuisines the range of seasonings coming from herbs and spices and other ingredients are increasing and ‘non-seasoned’ food is hard to find. Developing seasonings has become a big food industry as flavour additions are created artificially and using natural mixtures and are added to plain flavoured products such as potatoes. Nowadays it is hard to think of having only plain crisps. Understanding and developing skills in seasoning food requires the knowledge and understanding of the effect of many ingredients and how they change and develop on cooking.
Mise en place
This means getting everything in place before you start cooking.
Vol au vent are small round cases of puff pastry that are filled with tasty sauce fillings.
Larger puff pastry cases filled with well seasoned fillings.
Vending system A method to sell or dispense drinks, snacks and meals. Vending machines need regular maintenance and also require regular re-stocking.
Cooking methods and cooking terms
Cooking products in dry heat in an oven. Shelf position in the oven is quite important the higher the shelf the hotter the oven temperature and the quicker the products will cook. Fan ovens blow the heat around and all the shelves cook evenly at the same temperature.
This means baking a product such as a pastry flan without the filling in the oven.
It helps to get the base layer of pastry crisp. You can buy baking beans made from ceramic for baking blind. Cover the pastry flan with baking paper and drop in the ceramic beans to add weight and hold down the pastry. Lift the paper after about 15 minutes and check to see if the pastry has dried. If so, you can carefully remove the paper containing the baking beans and shoot them back into their storage jar (take care they are HOT.) Allow them to cool and use again and again for baking blind.
Cooking in water ‘on the move’ at boiling point (100 C) on the cooker hob. Mostly a lid is placed over the pan to retain the heat and keep in the steam. The lid needs to allow some steam to escape or it will rattle so tilt the lid slightly on the pan. Usually, boil is a first step and is followed by the term simmer which is a gentle controlled boil (see simmer).
Cooking over high temperature coals in the outdoor. Foods are placed on racks over the heat and turned and moved to ensure even and thorough cooking. Houmous, sweetcorn, sausages, burgers, chicken joints are popular BBQ food choices.
A slow and moist method of cooking that helps to make meat tender and vegetables soft and juicy. Rapid searing of the outside of a meat joint is followed by resting the meat on a vegetable layer. Enough stock or water is used to cover the vegetable layer. The cooking dish is then covered with either a lid or foil to sealing the cooking container. Cook gently at a moderate heat for up to an hour. Tougher cuts of meat such as topside or silverside can be cooked successfully this way.
This method uses a microwave combined with grill to cook, heat and brown a dish. Microwave alone would not brown.
To cook in a frying pan that is usually shallow and flat. Frying is carried out on the cooker hob. A stir-fry pan is deeper with sides that enable you to stir quite rapidly and cook over a high heat. It is wise to choose a non-stick frying pan.
Deep frying is using a deep pan on the hob at least one third to a half full of cooking oil. A basket is usually used to hold the product to be cooked this way and to drain off the oil when the product is cooked. It is popular for Indian products such as samosa and puri, and English products such as doughnuts and battered fish and chips! I would strongly recommend buying a thermostatically controlled deep-fat fryer for safety. Frying tends to give wonderful flavour and texture to food.
Stir-fry a method of cooking using a wok or a deep sided frying pan allowing the hob heat to spread up the sides thus cooking the food very rapidly. It is used for many Asian and Thai dishes.
Dry frying is using a frying pan on the hob and placing ingredients such as bacon, lardon (cubes of bacon), chorizo, pancetta or sausages directly into the pan without adding any oil or fat. The frying actually begins once some fat from the product melts and begins to come out of the product and lubricate the pan.
A hot, intense and direct method of applying heat to a product. The grill compartment of the cooker should enable the grill tray to have shelf positions nearer or further away from the heat. Thin products are best as the heat can penetrate one side then you can turn it over and cook the other side. Best products are sausages, bacon, tomatoes and of course bread for toast. Always keep an eye on grilling it can be fast and furious.
Poaching is a gently moist method of cooking and is either carried out on the hob or in the oven. Either way requires the product to be covered with a well-fitting lid or a foil wrap. Moisture such as water, white wine, apple juice or stock is needed. Usually the base of the cooking container is covered in a thin layer of juice and the product laid into the moisture along with other flavourings such as bay leaves, star anise, black peppercorns or similar. Salmon fillets or whole fish can be poached. Medium heat is used to create steam to gently cook the product without drying it out.
A method of cooking in hot fat or oil in a hot oven. The fat can be meat fat such as lard or dripping. Oil is usually corn oil as it can be heated to a high temperature. Hot fat browns the food and give it a recognisable golden crispy coating. Roast potatoes are a good example of classic English roast potato. Modern cooking reduces the amount of fat by coating products in oil before cooking and laying the products on a tray. ‘Oven-bake’ is sometimes used as a cooking term for lower-fat roasting.
To fry off in butter or oil using a pan on the hob. Sometimes a lid is used after the initial stage to prevent too much moisture loss. Sweating is a newer name for the process of sautéing. It is used when flavours need to be developed and texture needs to be softened but the browning process is not needed.
Cooking in water or stock just below boiling point. Usually you boil first and then turn down the heat so that the food simmers just below boiling point. It prevents boiling over!! This requires you to recognise that you need to control the temperature by adjusting the number or setting for the hob ring you are using.
A French method of cooking that has become very popular in restaurants and in the home. It is low temperature, long time length cooking usually used for meat. Vacuum packing the meat protects it and allows the precisely controlled gentle heat to slowly tenderise it.
Steaming is a fat free method of cooking that is suitable for vegetables and puddings. It can be carried out in a saucepan with a lid on the hob but usually a steamer tier or stack is placed over a saucepan and a top lid will trap all the steam. If you have more than one layer you can cook cauliflower in one layer and carrots in another. This saves fuel and also makes good use of the hob, one pan cooking what might otherwise need two pans. You can buy electric steamers.
Using a microwave is a quick way to re-heat food products and to cook moist products. It relies on the microwaves juggling water in the food so that it gets hot and spreads the heat through the food. It is a good idea to rest the product for about 30 seconds to allow time for the heat to spread. Stirring helps the heat to spread and will avoid cold spots. Take care NOT to super-heat products such as coffee. Time is a very important control on a microwave.
A term used when you are assembling ingredients to make a dish or recipe. Usually a mixing bowl or larger container is selected in the first place to allow the collection of ingredients to combine without spilling.
To mix together ingredients quickly with rapid motion and usually with a wooden spoon or with an electric mixer. It is normally in order to trap some air into a mixture and make the end product light and open in texture.
Usually means mixing water with another ingredient. Sometimes it is corn flour that had to be blended with water (when making a sauce) and this means using a wooden spoon or the back of a wooden spoon to crush the lumps and make the mixture smooth. Using a Blender means to use a stick blender or a food processor to make a smooth mixture from one that is initially lumpy such as when making a soup. The amount of blending will cause the result to be partially lumpy or very smooth like a puree.
Blending is the thorough mixing of ingredients by reducing the particle size. Blending is possible in a food processor. Smooth soups, puree or pastes can be produced by blending.
Blending method a technique for sauce making by mixing flour and water together to create a mixture without lumps that is then stirred into and re-boiled in a liquid. Custard made with traditional custard powder is an example, or thickening a stew with cornflour or 'Bisto' type product.
Using a knife to reduce the size of ingredients such as potatoes or onions. This aids the cooking by reducing the time to cook. The size of chopping is controlled by the terms ‘finely’ for small chopping, or into quarters for products like potatoes. Chop into florets means to cut the natural form such as a broccoli head or a cauliflower into pieces that have the stalk and flower and are as regular in size as is possible. The art of chopping is highly regarded and needs careful practise.
This term can mean the use of a knife or the use of scissors. Cutting means products are reduced in size. This can be to aid quicker cooking or just to portion the product and make it easier to mix with other ingredients. Cut can be helped by instructions such as ‘in half’ or ‘into quarters’. (also see Snipping)
After slicing the product can be further cut. Each slice can be chopped into strips and the strips cut across to produce small cubes. All sides of diced ingredients can be cooked and will absorb flavours and give out their flavours to other ingredients
Egg and crumb
This is a method of coating food to protect it during cooking giving a crisp and crunchy golden coating to the food. The crumbs can be bread, cornflakes crushed up, oatmeal or semolina.
A slower method of adding flour to a cake mixture usually carried out with a metal spoon or a spatula in a figure of eight style movement.
Many products are glazed. Glazing improves the out surface of a product by making is shiny, richer in colour or sweeter. Commonly an egg and milk ‘wash’ can be brushed on to pastry and scones. Water with salt is a glaze that can be applied to bread rolls to give a crunchy crust. Apricot jam (sieved and made runny with boiled water) can be applied to flans, fruit tarts, currant buns and pastry to give a shine and a gloss that remains after cooking and cooling. Meats can be glazed using gravy and a little sugar and mustard. Glazed roasted ham uses apricot jam to provide the shine and caramelised layer to the surface. Pate often has a glaze of butter to prevent the surface drying out and the colour darkening. Glazes are edible outer layers that make products look more appetising.
A food ingredient can be grated by hand or in a food processor with a grater attachment. Grating is a way of reducing the ingredient into small slivers that will cook quickly, melt, mix or become easier to eat. Graters have different sizing from very fine for lemon zest, parmesan cheese grating or larger sizes for cheddar and carrots or apples. Ready grated products help the consumer and are popular now – ready grated cheeses in particular.
A special technique where the knuckles of your hands work a dough to make it smoother perhaps in readiness to roll out. In breadmaking kneading is more vigorous and will stretch the dough and make it elastic.
A method of immersing or soaking food products in a flavoursome mixture known as a marinade. This adds flavour, sometimes colour and sometimes helps the tenderness of the product. For example, you can marinate chicken in yoghurt, sausages in soy and balsamic vinegar.
Traditionally a potato masher is used even if you are mashing peas, parsnips or swede. Some chefs now ’smash’ ingredients using the end of a rolling pin giving a texture mash (soft lumps) rather than a smooth end product.
To combine ingredients together, until they do not separate. Usually using a spoon or wooden spoon and at a steady rate to avoid spillage.
Peeling is a process by which the outer, inedible layer of an ingredient is removed. Historically potatoes were peeled prior to cooking and there are many different types of peelers – fixed blade peelers (the Lancashire peeler) and swivel bladed peelers. A small vegetable knife can also be used for peeling and with improving skill a very thin layer can be peeled from fruits and vegetables to help them cook more evenly or have improved mouth feel.
Even today the rolling pin is still vital in the kitchen. Rolling out make dough thinner so that it can line tins and will cook to crispness.
Using hands or a cutter or mould can help make food shapes. Techniques with bread dough to shape rolls or pastries require a skill to be learnt. Visual check on size and shape are important.
To use a utensil such as a spoon to move the ingredients in order to mix them or to prevent sticking on the base of a pan, or to aid thickening to a smooth end result.
To cut across an ingredient such as a tomato. Slices can be thick or thin. Pre-slicing is a way of making food more convenient for the cook and is commonly seen with bread, cheeses, hams and pre-cooked meats.
Snipping is a term that indicates the choice of kitchen scissors. It is an easy way for products such as chives where small pieces can easily be added to salads.
substances that turn universal indicator aperture shades of red. They form salts when they react with a base. Found in foods: citric acid in citrus fruits, tartaric acid in cream of tartar, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in fruits and vegetables, amino acids in proteins.
substances that neutralise acids. Alkali is also called a base e.g. Acid plus base = salt plus water. Sodium bicarbonate is an alkali in cooking.
molecules made up from carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen with linked phosphorus and sulphur.
Normal room temperature around 18⁰C- 20⁰C
An additive, which prevents oxidative rancidity of fats in foods.
(BV) The value a protein food gives to the human body to enable growth and repair in the body.
A process which occurs when sucrose is heated and changes in colour
from white to golden brown giving characteristic flavour change.
A substance made up from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrate is a macronutrient, the major source of energy for the body.
A catalyst is a substance that increases the speed of a chemical reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
An irreversible process where proteins denature, changing from a soluble to an insoluble structure. As proteins coagulate they form crosslinks between themselves which’ holds’ or ’sets’ mixtures e.g. Raw eggs are coagulated by heat.
The insoluble protein in connective tissue, tendons bones and skin of
animals and fish. It is converted to the soluble protein substance gelatine in the presence of
moist heat and therefore increases the tenderness of meat.
a homogenous mixture made up of two phases one dispersed in another e.g. milk is a fat-in-water colloid.
Part of an experiment used to compare results
An alteration in the structure and shape of protein caused by heat, acid alkali or
mechanical action. It is an irreversible process.
the changed state of starch (dextrin) caused by application of dry heat.
Soluble compounds formed by the breakdown of starch by heat, enzymes or acids. Dextrins are formed in the presence of dry heat when bread is toasted.
Substances which help water and oily liquids to be uniformly dispersed together creating an emulsion.
is a natural emulsifying agent found in egg yolks that helps stablise emulsions e.g. when making mayonnaise.
A mixture of two immiscible liquids which can be stabilised or separate out on standing.
Natural protein substances which control other bio-chemical reactions e.g. Ascorbic acid oxidase controls loss of vitamin C in cut fruits.
Chemical breakdown of sugars by the action of yeast or bacteria or enzymes e.g. grape juice to wine, soya milk to tofu, cream to créme fraiche. Products labelled as cultured or soured.
Formed when gas or air is introduced in quantity into a liquid or semi-liquid. Masses of bubbles are a characteristic. Egg white meringue, ice-cream and whisked sponge mixture are all examples.
The addition of nutrients to manufactured foods to provide an increased intake and replace nutrients lost during processing. White flour is fortified with iron and Vitamin B (thiamin and niacin).
A process that occurs when starch is mixed with a liquid and heated. The
starch swells, absorbs and bursts as it gradually thickens the liquid. Used in sauce making.
A mixture of the low biological value (LBV)proteins glutenin and gliadin that combine to form gluten when water is added to flour. Dough is formed with characteristic elasticity. Gluten is denatured by heat and loses elasticity. Gluten sets, holding the risen structure of baked goods.
Substances used in food manufacturing to stabilize emulsions. Gums are hydrocolloids. Guar Gum See: Xanthan gum
A process where milk (a colloid) is forced through fine nozzles to break
fat globules into fine droplets which are dispersed and remain dispersed throughout the milk. No cream line occurs on standing or during shelf life.
Substances used in food processing, such as glycerol, which inhibit the loss of moisture from manufactured baked products. Humectants hold the water and prevent crystallization of sugar in confectionery and growth of ice crystals in frozen foods.
The treatment of oils by the addition of hydrogen under pressure which attaches to unsaturated double bonds in the oil (lipid). Was used in margarine manufacture to firm up the oil to become a spreadable fat. Now other methods are used.
substance that absorbs moisture from the air. Sugars are hygroscopic.
Colloidal structures that hold water.e.g. Gums
A liquid that changes colour to indicate acid or alkaline.
Produced by the hydrolysis of sucrose. Used in the manufacture of sweets as it prevents the crystallization of sucrose.
produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate lactose in milk. Give characteristic flavour to fermented dairy products.
Milk sugar. A disaccharide formed from one unit of glucose and one unit of galactose.
An emulsifier naturally present in egg yolk. Helpful in making fresh mayonnaise and in cakes. Used as an emulsifier in manufactured foods.
the nutrients in the diet measured in g. Protein, carbohydrate and fat.
A browning reaction, NOT due to enzymes, which occurs due to a reaction between carbohydrates and proteins during cooking at high temperatures. Responsible for meaty flavour and colour on the surface of roasted meat , and browning on baked goods where protein and carbohydrates are mixed e.g. cakes
A (a fungi) compressed to form Quorn. An ingredient that provides a good source of protein.
the nutrients in the diet measured in milligrams or micrograms, vitamins and minerals
A mixture is a substance made by combining two or more different materials in such a way that no chemical reaction occurs. A mixture can usually be separated back into its original components. Some examples of mixtures are a tossed salad or salt water.
A deep red tissue pigment that is responsible for the colour of meat. It holds
oxygen in the muscles and enables them to function
A substance present in rhubarb leaves and spinach, which is poisonous if consumed in large amounts.
the chemical reaction of a product with oxygen which might adversely affect flavour texture or colour of a product and limit shelf life.
Occurs in unsaturated fats and oils. The reaction is initiated by the
presence of some metals, ultra-violet light and high temperatures.
The heat process used to make safe food e.g. milk or fruit juices. Helps to prolonging the keeping quality of products by heating to destroy harmful bacteria.
pH is the level of acid or alkaline concentration of a substance, on a scale of 0-14 where 0 is very acidic and 14 is very alkaline
Capacity of a fat to melt over a range of temperatures enabling it to be firm, spreadable or melt.
A complex polysaccharide, formed by some plants. It forms gels in water and is used
in the setting of jam.
Long chains of amino acids used to form proteins.
Formed from long chains of monosaccharide units. Called starch, they are insoluble in cold water.
Term used to describe the chemical structure of fatty acids with more than one double bond.
Starches heat treated to speed up end cooking time e.g. quick cook pasta, quick cook rice, easy blend flour for sauces without lumps.
Substances added to some processed foods to prevent spoilage.
Live micro-organisms which are added to foods and thought to restore the
microbial balance in the intestine.
Essential constituents of all cells. Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen phosphorus and sulphur.
A chemical change in fats caused by oxidation or hydrolysis. It causes ‘off’ flavours to
Retrogradation (of starch):
the opposite of gelatinisation. The starch undergoes a colloidal
change and contracts due to the loss of water. Stabilizers are used in processed foods to
A solution that has absorbed as much of a solute as possible at a given temperature. E.g. sugar in water
the liquid stage of a colloid e.g. gelatin when cooled a sol become a gel.
a homogeneous mixture of two phases – the solute and the solvent.
Substances which absorb water and are often used as thickening agents or to keep an emulsion stable.
A long chain polysaccharide composed from units of glucose.
mixture with two phases solvent and solute that eventually separates.
Refers to overcooked eggs custard, when the proteins shrink as they coagulate and
squeezes out watery liquid ( Seen as holes in the baked custard). Also degrading of a set white sauce as it shrinks.
The thickness of a liquid or a mixture related to flow, such as a sauce.
Polysaccharide produced by bacterial fermentation and used as a thickening
agent to form gels and increase viscosity. Used to replace gluten in gluten free flour to achieve acceptable baked products.
Microbe and biological raising agent. Bakers yeast has the technical name, Saccharomyces Cerevisciae. A source of vitamin B. Ferments to produce carbon dioxide if it has food, moisture, warmth and time.